Open Journal Systems

World Libraries | Volume 16 | Issue 1 & 2 | Kołodzińska & Ganińska

A Vision of the Virtual Library in the Strategy of the Technical University’s Library
Ewa Kołodzińska and Halina Ganińska

Abstract

Present–day understanding of the virtual library. Description of the virtual library components: network, information and communication technology (ICT), online catalogue, internal resources, dispersed resources, and online services. The portal as the virtual library center. Multifunctional structure of the portal: integration of resources, communication, distribution of information, offering services online. Conclusions for the strategy of the Technical University’s Library of the hybrid (library) structure.

Summary

This article deals with the present–day understanding of the virtual library in Poland, i.e., the evolution of the concept in the last 10 years, from that of the digital library to the virtual. The idea of the virtual library is based on the traditional library; however, it constitutes the enlargement and improvement of the latter’s activity in the ever–changing information technology environment.

It describes some elements of the virtual library such as the network, information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure, the enlargement of the online catalogue’s functions, access to bibliographical and full–text own resources, online library and information services for the end user.

Next, the article characterizes the environment of the virtual library following the work of A. Magnussen and the nine areas identified therein as influencing the development of the virtual library: legal framework, finances, users, personnel, organization, management, technology, collaboration and scientific disciplines.

The library portal with the multifunction structure as the centre of the virtual library is presented further as enabling the integration of internal and external resources, communication with the user and introduction of diverse forms of information distribution as well as offering online services. The proposal of the structure of the library portal is borrowed from K. Maloney; the example is that of the Kentucky Virtual Library.

Finally, the article offers conclusions for the strategy of the Technical University’s Library of the hybrid (library) structure: developing information model and undertaking strategic activities in at least five areas, i.e., giving up the functional structure, strengthening the matrix structure, transformation into the hybrid library, education and enhancement of information skills as well as effective management of information services based on the assessment method of economic effectiveness and operational research.

1. From the Digital to the Virtual Library

In the late 1990s the “virtual library” was conceived in Poland in the following way:

“ ...The virtual library is constituted by information and documentation resources to be found online; however, it is not an institution as it neither has walls nor director nor an organization in the sense we apply to the traditional or classical library... .” [1]
“ ...There can be no doubt that the virtual library is indissolubly connected with computer networks [...] I am inclined to propose that one of the meanings of the term ‘virtual library’ is the record of links to online resources, provided it is elaborated (structured) according to the rules (tools) used in librarianship. As an example of the virtual library we can propose such service as CyberStacks(sm) [...] In a nutshell, the virtual library is the digital library of tomorrow... .” [2]
“ ...The advent of new electronic publications changes the role of the library. The vision of the library of the future which results from these transformations — the virtual library — is the vision of the library offering access to the whole of human knowledge, accessing the resources of which is simple and comfortable, and possible irrespective of time, space and the location on the Earth. Documents of such libraries, which are connected with other libraries via the Internet, are delivered to the user instantaneously. Not only do information services available from the hosts of known publishing companies provide the user with the possibility of looking through the contents of the latest issues of magazines, but they also send information about all new publications to the user’s e–mail address... .” [3]
Encyclopaedia Britannica does not cover the concept of the “virtual library,” but it describes the “virtual museum” — a collection of digitally recorded images, sound files, text documents, and other data of historical, scientific, or cultural interest that are accessed through electronic media. A virtual museum does not house actual objects and therefore lacks the permanence and unique qualities of a museum in the institutional definition of the term. [etc.] [4]

The virtual museum is therefore in opposition to the museum understood as an institution, as a place. Analogous to the “virtual museum,” one can specify the denotative scope of the term “virtual library,” following its natural development.

One can thus say that the term virtual library refers to the information and documentation resources to be found online, the record of links to online resources, the library of the future offering access to all human knowledge.

These are some interesting examples of virtual libraries:

  • The WWW Virtual Library [5], 1991, Geneva — the oldest catalogue in the World Wide Web; at present an Internet guide with a fast search option based on disciplines, e.g., engineering or computing and computer science;
  • Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Technik (ViFaTec)/Engineering subject Gateway ViFaTec [6], 1998, Hanover;
  • Kentucky Virtual Library [7].

Virtual libraries in Poland date back to 2000. These are:

Scientific Virtual Library, with two collections:

  • Natural Sciences Collection [8] — eight scientific journals since the 1990s,
  • Mathematics and Physics Collection [9] — 13 ongoing publications, starting from vol. 1, the oldest one — Essays in mathematics and physics, vol. 1 (1888)

Technology online — a guide to Internet resources for technical sciences — 506 references.

It needs to be added that, under the entry virtual libraries, EBIB (Electronic Library) presents 28 projects of various universities and libraries, most of which use the term digital library [10].

Hence the question arises whether the library is still digital or more and more virtual. An interesting approach was presented by Ewa Chmielewska–Gorczyca who divided libraries depending on the degree and the scope of their dependence on computer technology:

  • multimedia library — with paper, audiovisual and electronic documents;
  • electronic library — with automated library processes;
  • digital library — with electronic resources only;
  • virtual library — library “without walls.” [11]

The sequence of these types of libraries also illustrates the effects of computerization and automation on libraries. As a result one can say that the virtual library is, at least up to now, the furthest developed form of the library.

Are we really striving for the library without walls, a more or less dispersed resource of digital documents? What is the relationship of such a conceived library with the traditional library; that is an institution the functions of which are not limited to providing information? Recent years have seen some more restrained concepts of the virtual library [12], which does not stand in opposition to the traditional library, but constitutes the enrichment and the improvement of the traditional library’s operating process in the ever–changing information technology environment. As a rule, they define the virtual library describing its elements.

2. Elements of the Virtual Library

There are six basic elements of the virtual library: network, ICT infrastructure, online catalogue, access to internal resources, access to dispersed resources and online services.

2.1. Network

The basic field of activity of the virtual library is the network, both global (the Internet) and local (intranets), through which we can offer access to:

  • the library’s catalogue;
  • other libraries’ catalogues;
  • central and dispersed catalogues;
  • library and information collections and services;
  • dispersed resources;
  • modern forms of communication (such as RSS channel — Really Simple Syndication);
  • help — a guide to collections and services, the function “ask the librarian,” help service operating all day long, seven days a week (24/7);
  • distance learning — i.e., training users in the field of information and technology skills, teaching process for different levels of education.

2.2. ICT Infrastructure

An appropriate information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure is indispensable. According to the Poland Development Portal [13] it is made up of:

  • access infrastructure to online services — access to the Internet, both physical access in the library (wireless or other) as well as access out of the library’s premises, is of great importance for the library’s development; one needs to bear in mind that only 30 percent of households in Poland have access to the Internet [14]. It is also important what one can find online, what kind of information one can get, what kind of knowledge one can access and to what degree the access is free and common;
  • software — basic software such as: operating system, Internet navigator, electronic mail program and specialized software, in this case designed for libraries; for example, integrated and automated library system, portal, meta-search engine, linksolver, bibliography manager, etc;
  • services — that is data transfer using appropriate communication standards and data formats [15], electronic mail, SMS gates as well as electronic payment, which is essential for de–localizing library services.

2.3. Online Catalogue (OPAC)

An online catalogue (Online Public Access Catalogue, or OPAC) also requires well–developed functionality. It must first of all enable simultaneous searching in local and external sources and unrestrained movement in these resources thanks to the system of links and hyperlinks which make the integration of resources possible. The catalogue must also become the access point for such services as interlibrary loans and delivering documents. In addition to external loan ordering, it is further indispensable to implement other forms of orders: for the reading room, for interlibrary loans, or ordering a copy of the document along with the ability to choose the form and the means of delivery of that copy. It is also important to develop the interactive help system at each stage of the search process, to contact the librarian and the ability to ask questions or share comments on the appropriate form outside the electronic mail program (e.g., of the type “ask the librarian”).

2.4. Access to Own Information Resources

The virtual library — having at its disposal electronic resources available on physical carriers (CD–ROMs) and those accessible online — still uses printed resources; the access to these, however, is organized via the network. It concerns both remote ordering of documents (to the reading room or home along with delivery) and making their copies accessible in electronic format (the collection of the so called ‘scans’ in the form of the digital library, digitalizing on request and delivering copies to e–mail addresses, to an ftp server or via the platform of the digital library). At this point one can easily notice how the areas of activity of traditional and digital libraries overlap.

2.5. Access to Dispersed Information Resources

Access to dispersed resources selected according to the needs of a given library’s users constitutes another important element of the virtual library. These are bibliographical databases and electronic book and journal services. The resources must be remote, from outside the area of IP addresses of a given institution. To enable such an access, the library — the physical, real library that is — negotiates the purchase of licensed access to resources with their producers and providers; to do so, it enters into consortia and agreements with other libraries. In addition, the access extends to free–access Internet resources appropriate for different categories of users as indicated by information specialists.

Given the expansion of such resources, linksolvers that connect bibliographical databases with full–text databases as well as programs which enable integrated searches are becoming more and more important. Processing documents online in the library catalogues is another important issue since the thesis that multi–search engines can replace consistent subject matter processing is debatable [16]. Processing free–access Internet resources is debatable as well. The question needs to be asked whether one should catalogue these documents in the language of subject matter entries, or using freely chosen key words or thesauri. It is a problem which concerns digital libraries as well.

2.6. Online Services for the End–user

What distinguishes the virtual library from earlier forms of libraries is offering online services. Apart from services typical for online catalogues, such as orders, renewals and reservations, other services should also be automated. These could include creating and activating readers’ accounts and broadening the scope of alert and notification functions, such as sending, e–mail or SMS notifications in addition to printed notifications.

Interlibrary loans call for improvement, too, both in the context of the integrated library system, by implementing a special module, and in the context of the user’s interface, with the possibility of ordering at the search stage in the central or dispersed catalogue. Document delivery orders, both in the traditional and digital form, should be handled via the catalogue. Such services must be paid for, and to classify them as remote access services payments should be made online (electronic payments).

Finally, information services can be offered via the Internet: multi–aspect literature search, help from and consultations with a specialist in the field or e–mail office hours of scientific information specialists.

3. Virtual Library Environment

For a virtual library to function, the environment it operates in is of great importance. The virtual library environment is illustrated by the following structure, taken from a doctoral dissertation on virtual libraries in Australia (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Virtual library environment

Figure 1: Virtual library environment.[17].

The author enumerates nine interconnected issues influencing the development of virtual libraries:

  1. legal — first of all copyrights — a factor hindering the development of digital resources, but also privacy protection — the library gathers personal data, information on its users’ preferences and interests, so it needs to protect this information;
  2. financial — that is obtaining and effective use of financial resources, among others the need to predict costs of databases, systems, equipment;
  3. users — the virtual library, to be competitive among other commercial information providers, must be particularly focused on its users’ needs, starting from its resources and services offered to their presentation, and facilitating access;
  4. personnel — librarians and scientific information specialists face new challenges — they are obliged to enhance their qualifications and skills on a regular basis;
  5. organization of the library — traditional functional structures transform into more flexible matrix structures, based on task–oriented teams;
  6. virtual library management — it is necessary to implement new strategies, control and enhance operational effectiveness, continuously improve quality and work on a positive image of the library in the eyes of users, sponsors and superior institutions;
  7. technological — one needs to keep in mind constant changes in the field, the ageing of equipment, software, carriers and digital resources formats;
  8. collaboration — with other libraries and institutions as well as users; the collaboration is more and more formalized (e.g., consortia) and automated (e.g. interlibrary exchange systems);
  9. scientific disciplines — the question needs to be asked if, at the present stage of automation and digitization, libraries should strive for resource specialization or whether the development of virtual libraries and collaboration among them will lead back to the idea of universality of libraries? It is also problematic to localize issues related to the virtual library in the discipline system — is it still scientific information and librarianship or, given the growing importance of technological issues, information technology?

4. The Library Portal

The library portal constitutes the central place of the virtual library. Transfer of library activities online demands new integrated tools. The library portal can be described as:

  • a point of consolidated access to diverse and dispersed information resources;
  • a common interface connecting independent information systems, influencing these systems and communicating with each of them;
  • a tool providing users with mechanisms of communication and customization to individual preferences.

The portal, therefore, that combines the function of an information service and a developed online catalogue, is a precondition to improved library processes, enhanced efficiency, enabled creativity and improved user service [18]. Figure 2 presents a proposal for the structure of the library portal.

Figure 2: The structure of the library portal

Figure 2: The structure of the library portal.[19]

These are the following three levels that constitute the essence of this proposal: the level of presentation, that of integration and information resources, and links to local and global services:

  1. level of presentation — connection with the superior institution’s portal, with an LMS (Learning Management System), a system for the management of learning processes;
  2. level of integration — in the context of the operation find > gain access > use, the portal includes: meta–search tools, help, results management, knowledge management; it covers online services as well: collecting metadata, linksolving, creating bibliographies, resource management, data transfer, search independent of metadata standards, personalization of search strategies and interface, remembering settings, local indexing (LDAP), server proxy, alerts and notifications, documents and information cycle management;
  3. level of information resources — the portal provides access to local repositories, licensed resources, free–access Internet resources, other libraries, museums, archives, local library system;
  4. local services — user authentication, managing user’s preferences, services configuration;
  5. global services — terminological: connecting thesauri, classification systems and subject–oriented terms languages [20] and global information and services resources.

An example of the virtual library portal in practice is the common library of the university and other scientific institutions of Kentucky (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Kentucky Virtual Library Portal

Figure 3: Kentucky Virtual Library Portal.[21]

The Kentucky Virtual Library portal includes:

  • search in databases and library catalogues;
  • discipline–based Internet guide;
  • digital library;
  • help — how to use the library, databases and other information indispensable for scientific research;
  • separate services for distinct user groups;
  • and — most importantly — close connection with the education system of all levels.

5. Conclusions for the Strategy of the Technical University’s Library of the Hybrid Structure

5.1. Developing an Information Model in the Technical University’s Library

The aim of developing an information model in the Technical University’s Library is to develop and strengthen all aspects of scientific and technical information (STI). STI is considered to be the basis of knowledge and, correspondingly, the following are considered to be the attributes of scientific and technical information as the basis of knowledge, in other words knowledge data:

  • elements of the information (its users, root source collections, information technologies, computer network, STI specialists);
  • processes (gathering root source information, scientific description of information sources, making information resources accessible and available);
  • activities (user and personnel communication — direct STI, face–to–face and indirect via traditional mail, telephone, fax and electronic mail, as well as elaborating — by STI personnel — answers to the questions of the collective and individual end–user, i.e. one–to–one and help and discipline–oriented consultations) [22].

An additional objective is for STI to help the library survive and meet the needs of the rapidly developing environment of the technical university: one that is based on information, education and research, and oriented towards the society of knowledge [23].

5.2. Strategic Activities

Strategic activities should be undertaken in at least five areas:

5.2.1. Giving up the functional structure of the library (based on branches and the division of functions within branches; with printed and electronic collections/library).

5.2.2. Strengthening the matrix structure (based on decentralization and operational flexibility in task–based teams; with printed resources, digital databases and access to full–text content as well as automated and integrated library system). The characteristics of the matrix structure are presented in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Changes of organizational structure

Figure 4: Changes of organizational structure.[24]

5.2.3. Transformation into the hybrid (library) structure (Figure 5); this structure combines two worlds of the library: the real or physical library and the virtual library, the latter one being characterized by virtual organization of activities, multifunction library portal and overlapping:

  • omni–resources (universal resources);
  • direct and indirect remote services, in particular dedicated to disciplines and individual needs (developing the so called service personalization);
  • scientific social communication, that is scientific announcements/information on research results and discoveries delivered in different forms [25]. These are to be found in the society of knowledge [26].
Figure 5: The structure of the hybrid library

Figure 5: The structure of the hybrid library.

5.2.4. Educating and improving information skills (information literacy) of the virtual librarian/virtual information specialist. The virtual librarian, alias information specialist, is a person learning and teaching:

  • technical university students;
  • information skills;
  • according to the models approved in the world, which we can use;
  • new programs, which should be elaborated as soon as possible, following those approved and tested [27].

5.2.5. Effectively:

  • managing information services;
  • applying methods of the assessment of economic effectiveness in the process of making a quality decision;
  • using operational research (British English “operational research”, American English “operations research”) [28].

At this point the question remains to be answered: are we ready co–create — along with the changing, learning and creative society and the scientific progress — the reality of the virtual library, integrated with the structures of science and education?

Notes

1. Pindlowa, W., 1998. “Biblioteka elektroniczna i wirtualna — co to znaczy dla bibliotekarzy i użytkowników?” [“The electronic and virtual library — what does it mean for librarians and users?”], [In:] Świat biblioteki elektronicznej w klasycznej bibliotece naukowej: możliwości rozwoju, uwarunkowania i ograniczenia: materiały konferencyjne (Poznań, 19–20 March 1998). Poznań: Biblioteka Główna Politechniki Poznańskiej, p. 18.

2. Radwański, A., 1999. “Biblioteka wirtualna — problemy definicyjne” [“The virtual library — definitional problems”], Biuletyn EBIB, no. 8 [electronic document], http://ebib.oss.wroc.pl/arc/e008-02.html, accessed 17 January 2000.

3. Łozowska A. and J. Stylińska, 1998. “Biblioteka wirtualna — alternatywą czy koniecznością badacza końca XX wieku [“The virtual library — an alternative or a must of the late 20th century researcher?”], [In:] Świat biblioteki elektronicznej w klasycznej bibliotece naukowej: możliwości rozwoju, uwarunkowania i ograniczenia: materiały konferencyjne (Poznań, 19–20 March 1998). Poznań: Biblioteka Główna Politechniki Poznańskiej, p. 43–44.

4. Encyclopaedia Britannica [electronic document], http://www.britannica.com (accessed 14 June 2006).

5. http://vlib.org/ (accessed 12 June 2006).

6. http://www.vifatec.de (accessed 12 June 2006).

7. http://www.kyvl.org/ (accessed 16 June 2006).

8. http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/ (accessed 12 June 2006).

9. http://matwbn.icm.edu.pl/ (accessed 12 June 2006).

10. http://ebib.oss.wroc.pl/linki/wirtua.php?projekty (accessed 12 June 2006).

11. Chmielewska–Gorczyca, E., 1966. “Ku bibliotece wirtualnej” [“To the virtual library”], Zagadnienia Informacji Naukowej, no. 1 (67), pp. 3–13.

12. See Model wirtualny In: Telega, G., 2003. “Współcześnie funkcjonujące modele sieci biblioteczno–informacyjnych w uniwersytetach” [“Contemporary models of library and information networks at universities”], Biuletyn EBIB, nr 8 (48) [electronic document], at http://ebib.oss.wroc.pl/2003/48/tetela.php, accessed 14 June 2006; Magnussen A., 2002. “The development of virtual libraries in commonwealth libraries in Australia,” University of Canberra, School of Information Management and Tourism [electronic document], s. 9–33, at http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00004766/ (accessed 14 June 2006); Malan P., 2000. “The virtual library,” [electronic document], at http://www.upe.ac.za/citte2000/docs/pmalan.doc (accessed 14 June 2006).

13. http://www.pldg.pl/pldg/portal/media-type/html/user/anon/page/article.psml/node_id/12-20 (accessed 14 June 2006).

14. Data taken from the Central Statistical Agency survey — Using information and telecommunication Technologies in 2005 at http://www.pldg.pl/pldg/portal/media-type/html/user/anon/page/article.psml/node_id/16-35 (accessed 14 June 2006).

15. Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z 11.10.2005 r. w sprawie minimalnych wymagań dla systemów teleinformatycznych. Dz.U.05.212.176.

16. See Kołodzińska, E., 2005a. “Informacja o czasopismach elektronicznych w polskich bibliotekach naukowych — stan obecny i perspektywy” [“Information on electronic journals in Polish scientific libraries — the current state and the prospects”], Biuletyn EBIB, no. 2 (63) [electronic document], at http://ebib.oss.wroc.pl/2005/63/kolodzinska.php (accessed 14 June 2006).

17. Magnussen A., 2002. “The development of virtual libraries in commonwealth libraries in Australia,” University of Canberra, School of Information Management and Tourism [electronic document], p. 74, at http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00004766/ (accessed 14 June 2006).

18. See also: Kołodzińska, E., 2005b. “Od strony internetowej do portalu bibliotecznego” [“From the webpage to the library portal”], [In:] Biblioteki naukowe w kulturze i cywilizacji: działania i codzienność: materiały konferencyjne: Poznań 15–17 czerwca 2005 / pod red. Haliny Ganińskiej. T. 2. Poznań: Biblioteka Główna Politechniki Poznańskiej, p. 58–67.

19. Maloney, K., 2004. “Library technology and planning for change. [In:] Portals in libraries — A symposium. Chicago: American Library Association, Library and Information Technology Association [electronic document], at http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litamembership/litaigs/internetportals/symposium.htm (accessed 21 March 2005).

20. A project of such a service is presented by OCLC, at http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/termservices/ (accessed 14 June 2006).

21. See http://www.kyvl.org/ (last accessed 14 June 2006).

22. More on the topic: Ganińska, H., 2004. “Informacja naukowo–techniczna jako baza wiedzy wspomagająca działalność edukacyjno–badawczą wyźszej uczelni technicznej” [“Scientific and technical information as the basis of knowledge supporting the educational and research activities at the university of technology”], [In:] Zarządzanie wiedzą w szkolnictwie wyźszym. Gdańsk: Wydaw. Polit. Gdańskiej, p. 85–94.

23. More on the topic: Ganińska, H., 2004. “Informacyjny model naukowej biblioteki technicznej” [“The information model of the scientific technical library”], [In:] Przestrzeń informacji i komunikacji społecznej; pod red. M. Kocójowej. Kraków: Wydaw. UJ, p. 34–39.

24. Ganińska, H., 2000. “Nowe rozwiązania w zarządzaniu biblioteką naukową w kontekście informacji elektronicznej — ogólna refleksja” [“New solutions in managing the scientific library in the context of electronic information”], Biuletyn EBIB, no. 8 (16), chart 3 [electronic document], at http://ebib.oss.wroc.pl/arc/e016-06.html (accessed 14 June 2006).

25. Sordylowa B., 1997. Z problematyki bibliotek i informacji naukowej [On libraries and scientific information]. Warszawa: PAN, p. 45–69.

26. Cempel, Cz., 2003. “Społeczeństwo wiedzy: Nowy wymiar kreowania i uytkowania wiedzy” [“The society of knowledge: A new dimension of creating and using knowledge”], Głos Politechniki 10, no. 3 (80), p. 9–13, and at http://www.egov.pl/index2.php?option=content&do_pdf=1&id=65 (accessed 4 September 2008); Fertsch M., 1997. “Założenia organizacji wirtualnej biblioteki wydziałowej [politechnicznej],” Poznań, 12 s. [mater. powiel.]; “Wirtualna Politechnika,” Głos Politechniki, 10, no. 3 (80), marzec 2003, s. 8–9; Oppenheim, Ch. and D. Smithson, 1999. “What is the hybrid library?” Journal of Information Science, 25, no. 2, pp. 97–112, w tym: Fig.1 Proposed model of the hybrid library — p. 103; Program rozwoju i utrzymania infrastruktury informacyjnej i informatycznej nauki oraz jej zasobów w postaci cyfrowej na lata 2006–2009. Minister Edukacji i Nauki, Warszawa, 28. grudnia 2005 http://www.mnii.gov.pl/ (accessed 12 June 2006).

27. Information literacy: Deklaracja Bolońska [The Bologna Declaration], Bolonia 19. czerwca 1999 at http://www.menis.gov.pl (last accessed 16 June 2006); Komunikat ze spotkania europejskich ministrów ds. szkolnictwa wyższego, Praga 2001 — za: Konieczna, D., 2005. “Biblioteka akademicka jako instytucja promująca proces kształcenia” [“The academic library as an institution promoting the process of education”], [In:] Biblioteki naukowe w kulturze i cywilizacji: działania i codzienność: materiały konferencyjne: Poznań 15–17 czerwca 2005 / pod red. Haliny Ganińskiej. T. 1. Poznań: Biblioteka Główna Politechniki Poznańskiej, p. 111–121; Konferencja Ministrów, Berlin, 18–19. września 2003; Bergen, 19–20. maja 2005; ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) Information Literacy Web site. “Information Literacy for Faculty and Administrators,” at http://www.ala.org/ACRL (accessed 16 June 2006); Virtual Library Information Literacy Workgroup. “KYVU Instructor Survey on Information Literacy from Kantucky Virtual Library,” at http://www.kyvl.org (accessed 16 June 2006) — further: http://www.kyvl.org/html/about/assessment/2005-04-TheSurvey.pdf.

28. Ganińska, H., 2001. “Biblioteka w procesie przemian — jakość i efektywność usług informacyjnych” [“The library in the process of transformation — the quality and effectiveness of information services”], Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Poznańskiej, Humanistyka i Nauki Społeczne, nr 50, s. 47–55; Węglarz J., 2006. O informatyce, badaniach operacyjnych i kilku ważniejszych rzeczach [On information technology, operational research and a few more important issues]. [In:] Profesor Jan Węglarz: doktor honoris causa Politechniki Poznańskiej; pod red. K. Długosz. Poznań, p. 15–24.



References

  1. Cempel, Cz., 2003. “Społeczeństwo wiedzy: Nowy wymiar kreowania i uytkowania wiedzy” [“The society of knowledge: A new dimension of creating and using knowledge”], Głos Politechniki, 10, no. 3 (80), p. 9–13, and at http://www.egov.pl/index2.php?option=content&do_pdf=1&id=65 (accessed 4 September 2008).

  2. Deklaracja Bolońska [The Bologna Declaration]. Bolonia 19. czerwca 1999 [electronic document], at http://www.men.gov.pl/proces_bolonski/p_prawne/deklaracja.php (accessed 16 June 2006).

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About the authors

Ewa Kołodzińska M.A., certified librarian, Main Library of the Poznań University of Technology, Poland.

Halina Ganińska M.A., certified librarian, is a director at the Main Library, Poznań University of Technology, Poland.

© 2008 Ewa Kołodzińska and Halina Ganińska.



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